Public Policy Development and Leadership (PPDL)
Module 1 will introduce participants to the foundations of public policy development and analysis, techniques of effective leadership, and respect for diversity. This module will provide participants with an intensive course on the policy cycle (from agenda setting to implementation and policy evaluation). In addition, participants will learn strategies for effective stakeholder engagement in the policy process. Key tools that the participants will practice include applying cost benefit analysis and other evaluation techniques to policy evaluation, developing strategies for writing effective policy memos, and using evidence in decision making.
Module 2 will build on the general foundation from Module 1, providing an overview of competencies common to all agencies in the country and then giving participants individualized instruction focusing on specific challenges and opportunities in policymaking targeted at their individual organizations or offices in Kosovo. Module 2 will begin with four weeks of specialized training on Diplomacy and Rule of Law, Economic Development, Energy Policy, Social Policy, Rural, Urban, and Regional Planning. The specialized training will be used to reinforce program goals, build stronger connections among participants, and broaden the scope of the participants’ knowledge base. This training will supplement the participant’s group project (developed around a current project or problem from their personal work) in developing a policy proposal in their field that they can take back to their home institution upon completion of the program.
The goal of the PPDL Certificate Program is to assist the Government of Kosovo in increasing the capacity of Public Servants in public policy and leadership at both the central and municipal levels. This program will provide specialized training in leadership, public policy analysis, evidenced-based decision making, and program evaluation.
The PPDL training program consists of two modules taught over a twelve-week period running concurrently with the regular RIT Kosovo (A.U.K.) semester schedule. Module 1 (Weeks #1-6) will provide a general foundation of public policy while Module 2 (Weeks #7-12) will provide more specialized and individualized training.
Credits: 13 Credits
Module 1- Foundation
- Foundations of public policy development and analysis
- Techniques of effective leadership, and respect for diversity
- Policy cycle (from agenda setting to implementation and policy evaluation)
- Strategies for effective stakeholder engagement in the policy process
- Key tools and practice in writing effective policy memos, using evidence in decision making, applying cost benefit analysis and policy evaluation
Module 2- Specialized Topics and Group Project
- Diplomacy and Rule of Law
- Economic Development
- Energy Policy
- Social Policy
- Rural, Urban and Regional Planning
- Group Project
|Module 1 Subjects||Objectives|
Public Policy Memo Writing
The PPDL Program consists of two modules. The first six weeks (Module 1) is set up as a general introduction to the public policy development process and the process of developing clear and concise, evidence-based, written policy recommendations. The following eight weeks (Module 2) are designed introduce Kosovo bureaucrats and other public servants to topics that should be of interest to all (e.g., governance, diplomacy, professionalism and ethics, environmental protection, regional planning, decision-making), and to provide expert help as participants develop a policy recommendation that is specific to a job, office, or agency.
Outcome Measures: Participants should have a general understanding course, the Certificates available at completion, the group project, and of the policy process and their important role in shaping and evaluating public policy as public servants in Kosovo. The participants should be organized into project teams based upon mutual interests or departments.
Clear, concise written communication in the form of Policy Memos is a key skill for every government worker or public policy advocate. Using a standard format presented in this course, participants will learn techniques for clear, concise and effective written argument. The use of evidence to support policy claims and structured decision making will be emphasized. This writing format will be practiced and used throughout the rest of course.
Outcome Measures: Participants should be able to make a well documented written argument for a policy position of their choice using the standard format presented in the course.
Agenda Setting Models
Collaboration and Developing an Inclusive Approach to Policy Formulation
Using examples from Kosovo and abroad, participants will explore how policy issues and goals have come to the attention of the public and of policy decision-makers. It will be important for participants to gain an understanding of their crucial constituent service role in regularly becoming aware of issues that have gained public attention.
Outcome Measures: Participants should be able to explain, using an agenda setting example from their personal experience, how a problem came to their attention or to the attention of their department, agency or coworkers.
Once a problem has reached the public agenda, a process of developing possible solutions is considered. Policy options typically range from doing nothing to small incremental adjustments to current practices and on to sweeping changes in current policy depending on public demand, budgets, and the range of possible solutions to a particular problem. Special attention will be paid to collaboration and including diverse communities in the policy development process.
Outcome Measures: Participants should be able to articulate reasons for collaboration and inclusive policy development. Participants should have made a group decision about the policy or problem that they will address in their group project.
Policy Development & Analysis: Evidence-Based Policy Formulation
Team building and Leadership
|Developing a set of policy goals and then programmatic alternatives is the first step in choosing the correct action in a particular situation. Participants will increase their ability to read research, develop policy alternatives. Participants will explore the use of evidence in developing policy alternatives and proposals.
Outcome Measures: Participants should understand the basic theories that guide the development of public policy and be able to explain various strategies for developing a clear definition of a problem and determining potential policy options to address problems.
In this course we take a positive normative approach to building and leading collaborative public policy in an inclusive environment. Leaders should see themselves more as facilitators of a process than as dictators whose whims should be followed. By including diverse stakeholders, policy workers should expect a bumpy road in the policy development process. However, by including and working through the interests of all parties in the development process, it should be easier to implement policies and programs with the stakeholder buy-in. This process takes leadership and a commitment to team building. Therefore developing skills at facilitating and leading teams is a critical skill for policy workers. Students will engage in a process of team building for organizational results including how to handle mistakes, build a commitment to continuous improvement and celebrate the successes of the team. Each student will participate in leading a team, developing a message that will guide their team in an engaging direction, and in creating team structures that support their vision in a particular organizational context (In course cohorts from the same parent organization this exercise should focus on their home institution. In mixed cohorts groups will be assembled and develop a plan based on group consensus.).
Team building and Leadership, Cont.
Public Policy vs. Public Program
Building on week 3, students will continue to develop their leadership and team building skills while exploring policy alternatives.
Outcome Measures: Participants should be able to articulate the key attributes of team leadership and team building. Participants should understand the symptoms of dysfunctional groups. Leaders should appreciate the need to be skilled facilitators who operate in an open, transparent, inclusive and yet highly effective style.
After decision-makers have made a choice among the available policy or program options that might meet their goals, the policy initiatives need to be presented to the public and implemented. Program implementation is a key phase in the policy cycle requiring aligning the work of potentially diverse stakeholder groups and gaining the buy-in of people with varying interests. Once a specific course of action has been decided upon, the critical next step is bringing everyone together to get the work started and done. In this activity participants will develop an implementation plan for a proposed project.
Outcome Measures: Participants should have a better understanding of the key factors in successful program implementation. Participants should be able develop a written implementation plan for a proposed program or activity.
Developing Metrics for Decision-Making & Evaluation
Monitoring & Evaluating
|Criteria-based decision-making is critical to fair and transparent public policy development. Participants will acquire skill in developing and using decision metrics that align with policy or program goals. Participants will develop skill in applying cost/benefit analysis incorporating qualitative and quantitative data in their decision process. A key factor in this process is developing measurable metrics that can be compared.
Outcome Measures: The participant’s should be able to develop a set of evaluation metrics that could be used to evaluate an ongoing program or activity within their office or agency.
Policy makers have a duty to ensure that policy initiatives are monitored and evaluated for success based on measurable criteria and established goals. Building on our criteria development exercise we will discuss policy and program evaluation techniques, and developing a mindset for constant quality and program improvement.
Outcome Measures: Participants should be able to develop a decision matrix using measurable variables and use the economic technique of cost / benefit analysis to make an unbiased and transparent decision based on their identified set of criteria and analysis. Participants should also be able to articulate a basic monitoring plan and to develop rubrics for evaluating measurable successes for a particular program or policy.
Work Group Evaluation & Exam Questions and Preparation
Mid Term Exam
|Today we will spend some time reviewing our group survey exercise. Everyone should have done the evaluation exercise including commenting on their own behavior.
Outcome Measures: This exercise should help to identify any problems in our work groups.
At our next class meeting we will have an exam that will evaluate the level of understanding our class has acquired about the course material presented to date. Now would be the time to ask questions about anything we have done or about expectations for the exam.
Outcome Measures: Participants should be prepared for the next week’s exam.
Today we will do the midterm exam of the material presented in module 1. The midterm exam consists of five brief case studies that outline an important social issue facing Kosovo. Select one of the five cases and prepare a policy proposal. You are to be guided by Eugene Bardach’s 8-fold path in policy making, which is in the Training Workbook. It advises public servants to take the following steps in making policy:
1. Define the Problem
2. Assemble Some Evidence
3. Construct Alternatives
4. Select the Evaluation Criteria
5. Project the Outcomes
6. Confront the Trade-offs
8. Tell Your Story
This is a take home individual midterm exam.
The Policy Development project is a practical exercise that will become our significant focus for beginning Week 7 and continue on the through final week of the course. The intent of this project is for each student and team to develop a proposal for a policy or governance issue issue that is relevant to his or her work. While the project will be developed and ultimately presented in a group, each student will write up the proposal individually in their own voice. Teams may be made up of people from the same office or from a mix of offices to gain a more varied perspective at the instructor and group’s discretion. Participants will be organized into teams of about five (depending on the cohort, and office they work at). The instructions for the final group project will be presented and participants will begin to get organized as a team.
Proposal Topic Presentations / Discussion of Group Project Proposals
Presentation/ Discussion of Group Project Proposals,
|Each Group will briefly present their Policy Memo on the group’s proposal topic for class discussion. Class comments should be focused on helping everyone clearly define and refine their problem statements. Based on the problem statement participants will begin to explore solutions and potential alternative plans with the aid of the instructor over the next four class meetings.
Class presentations will continue until completed.
Outcome Measures: In this task the participants will be evaluated as a group. The policy memo will be scored based on five criteria as specified in the guide to writing policy memos presented in the first week of Module 1 (Completing the task according to the instructions, a clear thesis in the first paragraph, use of appropriate evidence, balance and fairness, and grammar, punctuation and style). The final group project will be based on this proposal.
Rule of Law & Diplomacy
|In Kosovo crime and corruption have been identified as the greatest threats to civil society. We will explore the Rule of Law and the importance of everyone working to combat corruption and enforce the rule of law at all levels of society.
Diplomacy has two meanings: first, it refers to all efforts made by a government to maintain good relations with the governments of other states; second, it refers to the individual skill in dealing with others without causing bad feelings. In the context of this class, diplomacy will refer to the first meaning, i.e. the government’s foreign policy and international relations.
Outcome Measures: Participants should be able to express their commitment to combatting corruption and aiding all agencies in Kosovo in supporting the rule of law.
After the declaration of independence by the Assembly of the Republic of Kosovo in 2008, the role of the international community, especially the US and the EU, grew and shifted from humanitarian aid into state building and institutional strengthening. The USAID and the EU Commissioner continue to be two key actors helping to strengthen efforts and address social policy issues in Kosovo. The United Nations has an important role as a guide towards the sustainable development in general and social policies in specific, based on the Millennium Development Goals and Sustainable Development (UNDP Kosovo, 2016).
Outcome Measures: Participants will be ready to show their knowledge of social issues and commitment to finding solutions related to them. They will be able to raise awareness and be ready to contribute towards finding solutions to actual social problems in Kosovo institutions and society, specifically on those related to People with Disabilities and Unemployment.
Sustainability and Environmentalism
Economic Development and Infrastructure, Agriculture and Forestry, Land Use, Regional and Urban Planning
|Determining how to provide for the needs of future generations even as we meet the needs of our current generation is a critical task for everyone in positions of power in Kosovo. In this exercise we will explore what kind of future we want. Sustainability is more than simply providing some amount of wealth to the next generation. Important decisions will need to be made about what things are of sufficient value to protect for the future. Questions of how we can provide a clean and safe environment and a society that values and protects social and cultural diversity into the future will be explored.
Outcome Measures: Participants should be able to articulate their role and the role of their office in facilitating or participating in protecting social, cultural and environmental resources based upon core values and respect for others.
Economic development is one of the greatest challenges facing the Republic of Kosovo. No single group or Ministry is solely responsible for this daunting task. Additionally, over the next several decades, as Kosovo continues to develop, the country will face numerous challenges in how to use and allocate limited resources including, most importantly, the land. How well Kosovo’s institutions coordinate the competing uses for land resources will decide future of the country. We will use the example of the benefits and consequences of the use of forest resources in Kosovo to ground our discussion.
Infrastructure development and effectively managing our agricultural and forest resources are critical to the progressive improvement of the living conditions of all Kosovars. We must adapt to create a balance between quality of life and economic development. Our goal is the sustainable use of resources, including land, water, and those that can be harvested from the forests or the ground. How we arrive at that balance will determine the success and future of Kosovo.
Outcome measures: Participants should be able to articulate a clear message about their role in driving economic development in Kosovo (both as individuals and as members of their respective organizations). The class should understand the impact energy demand and pricing have on deforestation, pollution and economic development
Economic Development and Infrastructure, Agriculture and Forestry, Land Use, Regional and Urban Planning, cont.
Policy Development Project
|Energy and planning policies form the long-term, strategic basis for the stability and resilience of countries, ensuring the infrastructure necessary for both economic growth and social cohesion. For many countries, these energy and planning policies are a natural extension of centuries of tradition and geography (e.g. Germany), but post-communist states have particular challenges in transitioning from centralized economies and political systems. For a republic such as Kosovo, there are added challenges of geography and separation from a larger federation, leaving the country with few natural resources, high population growth, and a nascent governance system.
Outcome Measures: By the end of this module, participants should be able to:
1. Demonstrate understanding of the connections between energy, urban and rural planning policies and impacts.
2. Critically analyze and communicate policy options available to the Republic of Kosovo in these policy arenas.
3. Engage with the international community in long-term strategies and priorities for Kosovo in promoting sustainable growth in these fields.
Participants will receive individualized and peer help with the development of a set of policy options and potential evaluation metrics relevant to their identified problem. These options will be evaluated next week and a choice will be made as to which one is most likely to meet with success. A key feature of developing the set of policy options will be using sufficiently precise language such that there is little ambiguity about what should happen in response to the actions taken from the proposal. In addition, evaluation metrics will include only things that can be either quantitatively of qualitatively measured.
Outcome Measures: Participants should have identified a range of options that might be used to address their problem and a set of criteria that can help us decide among the options
|Week 11: Development Project / Use of Evaluation Metrics and Decision Making
Development Project / Use of Evaluation Metrics and Decision Making, cont.
Instructions for the Final Presentations
|Participants will develop and use a set of evaluation metrics to identify the strongest of their policy alternatives and choose one for their final proposal. Participants will receive individualized and peer help with the development of a final proposal relevant to their specific field. Participants will be prepared to present their work at the end of the term.
Outcome Measures: Using a group derived set of evaluation metrics; each group will identify a policy solution for inclusion in their final proposal. The decision should be arrived at through the use of an unbiased set of metrics and should have the support of all members of the group. You may use any of the decision matrix options described below.
Today we will take some time review our work together and make final plans for our group presentations. If you have any questions about your individual memo or the presentation ask today. Today you will have an opportunity to give some confidential feedback on the course and your instructor. The faculty review forms will be handed out and collected by USAID/PPDL staff and will be placed in a sealed envelope until after the end of the course. Please do not put your names on those forms. Additionally, you will have an opportunity to provide some feedback on how things worked with each of your peers.
Outcome Measures: Participants should have presented their groups proposal (as a group) and competed and turned in an individually written report on their group’s proposed solution to the problem or activity as identified by the group. Participants attending a minimum of 85% of all sessions will receive a Certificate of Participation in the program. Participants attending 85% of all sessions and completing all work with distinction will receive a Certificate in Public Policy with Distinction.
Oral Presentation of the Group Proposal / Submitting Individualized Written Policy Proposals, Cont.
Oral Presentation of the Group Proposal / Submitting Individualized Written Policy Proposals, Cont.
Outcome Measures: Participants should have presented their groups proposal (as a group) and competed and turned in an individually written report on their group’s proposed solution to the problem or activity as identified by the group.
Note: Suggested “Further Readings” listed at the end of each section are either available online or through the RIT/AUK Library
Successful completion of the RIT Kosovo (A.U.K) Certificate for Public Policy Development and Leadership calculates a final grade of 70% and above.
National Vocational Certificate
Specialist/ Professional of Public Administration
NQF Level: V
VET Credits: 13
|Public Policy Development and Leadership|
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